In a large bowl, finely grate garlic. Add anchovy paste, lemon, olive oil, salt and pepper. Mix with a fork until the dressing comes together.
Wash kale and dry thoroughly. Tear from stems into bite-sized pieces and add to bowl with dressing. Using your hands, mix well with dressing, massaging kale as you go to tenderize it (kale is very different than lettuce so you can really use force to get the dressing to adhere!) Using a microplane grater, add cheese. Toss lightly to incorporate.
Serve cold or room temperature. This dish holds up great on a buffet and is reminiscent of Caesar salad, but with a little twist!